Crusades Glossary

Follow the instructions on your assignment to submit your Crusades glossary entry.  Your glossary entry must be a 5-7 sentence paragraph that addresses the name of your topic, the connection of your topic to the Crusades, the significance of your topic to the Crusades, as well as any other interesting information you discovered during your research.  Make sure to include your two sources in your entry to receive full credit!

After submitting your entry, connect to two other classmates by commenting on their glossary entry, telling how your topic connects to theirs.

Finally, take notes on the glossary entries (there will be some repeated entries) to help your understanding of the Crusades as a whole, as well as to help with your success on the Crusades quiz.

197 Responses to “Crusades Glossary”

  1. Lucas neacsu says:

    The Moors were Muslims from the Middle Ages who lived in what’s now Spain, Portugal, and parts of Africa. The term Moor is an exonym first used by Christian Europeans to designate the Muslim populations of the Maghreb, Al-Andalus (Iberian Peninsula), Sicily and Malta during the Middle Ages. Moors relate to crusades because during the Middle Ages, the Crusades, which were religious wars, often involved conflicts with the Moors, especially in Spain and Portugal. Moors were from 711 to 1492. The Moors are particularly relevant in the history of Spain, Portugal, and parts of Africa, where they had a significant cultural impact. The Crusades, those religious wars in the Middle Ages, often happened against the Moors, especially around Spain and Portugal. The Moors were considered to have advanced in the fields of mathematics, astronomy, architecture, cuisine, medicine, and agriculture

    History, The African. “The Moors Were the Black Kings (and Queens) Who Ruled Europe for over 700 Years.” The African History, 23 June 2020,

    Contributor, A. B. S. “When Black Men Ruled the World: 8 Things the Moors Brought to Europe.” Atlanta Black Star, 7 Oct. 2013,

  2. Johnny Lamantia says:

    King Richard I was the Christian King of England from 1189-1199. He was given the nickname “The Lion-Hearted” for his great courage and honorable behavior as a soldier. After Jerusalem fell to the Muslim leader Saladin in 1187, the Third Crusade was called to recapture the city. King Richard agreed to lead that crusade. He raised a lot of money to fund the Third Crusade by questionable methods such as persecuting and robbing Jews, imposing a large tax on all classes, and selling land. He amassed a fleet of 100 ships to carry his army of 17,000 men to travel by sea to the Holy Land. He fought in the Holy Land for several years but was never able to recapture Jerusalem. He did, however, enter into a truce with Saladin where Christians were allowed to visit Jerusalem and have free access to holy places.

    “The Third Crusade.” Lords and Ladies, Accessed 25 Sept. 2023.

    Goodyear, Michael. “Richard the Lionheart and The Accidental Conquest of Cyprus.” Historic UK, 30 June 2020, Lionheart-Accidental-Conquest-Cyprus. Accessed 25 Sept. 2023.

    • Sharon C says:

      Your topic of the Third Crusades correlates with mine because Saladin conquered Jerusalem during the First Crusades, but when the Third Crusades were sent out to the Holy Lands they overran Jerusalem and took over the land again.

      • Meadow Carr says:

        This relates to the to my topic because he was nobel during the crusades which shows how he fought for the crusades long and hard until it was over.

    • McKenzie Bryant says:

      My topic connects to yours because they both are around the third Crusade. Both of their goals were to capture Jerusalem even though King Richard failed to. Also great use of words!

    • Jhanessa Phansisai says:

      Your topic relates with my topic because during the first crusade they also used persecution as a method to get rid of the Jews.

    • Megan Porter says:

      Your topic relates to my topic because King Richard I was nobility involved in the Crusades, and also had lead and funded battles for the cause

  3. Xander Fairclough says:

    Bernard of Clairvaux

    My Topic for this Glossary is Bernard of Clairvaux. Bernard of Clairvaux was one of the Co-initiators of the second crusade. He was more relevant or more active in the years between 1130 and 1145. He was mainly relevant in Clairvaux, Village, In northeastern France. Bernard mainly advocated for the crusades but helped convince people to join in the Second crusade which was unsuccessful. In the crusades he help in they mainly lost even though it was not his fault.

  4. ella filipenko says:

    Intolerance played a huge role in intensifying the crusades. People of different religions such as Muslims and Christians, had a profound prejudice against one another. This led to lack of empathy and understanding, causing violence and conflict to escalate. The crusades were characterized by religious desire to reclaim the holy lands, but the intolerance between different religious groups ultimately intensified the brutality and devastation of these military campaigns. The intolerance caused a cycle of violence and obstructed any potential peace or resolution.

    Thomas F. Madden. “The Real History of the Crusades.” Crisis 20, no. 4 (April 2002).

    Paul, Nicholas L., “Modern Intolerance and the Medieval Crusades [Excerpted from WHOSE MIDDLE AGES?]” (2019). History. 15.

    • Henry Olson says:

      This relates to the moors because they were one of the groups that had this prejudice against the christian crusaders

    • Victoria Tostemar says:

      Excommunication and Intolerance relate to each other because they both include and talk about religious beliefs and churches.

  5. Addison says:

    Trade in Europe declined after the fall of Rome. Italian merchants traded with Constantinople, Syria, Egypt, Christians and Spanish Muslims across the Mediterranean. Sicily, under the Muslims rule, was a source of production among goods. Even though the Crusades did not start the trade, they helped increase trade as Europeans became more and more familiar with exotic goods. The Crusades used trade as a way to ensure that the Byzantine stayed safe from the threat of Turks. They also used trade as a way to try and free the Holy lands.

    Works Cited
    “Cross-Cultural Trade and Cultural Exchange during the Crusades.” The Sultan and the Saint, Accessed 26 Sept. 2023.
    “The Crusades.” Encyclopedia Britannica, Accessed 26 Sept. 2023.

    • ella filipenko says:

      My topic relates to your topic because intolerance can affect groups or cultures relationship
      and can disrupt trading routes.

    • Gabriella Wentzel says:

      trade held up constantinople

    • Karina says:

      Zara (Zadar) was a pivotal trade hub during the Crusades due to its strategic location on the Adriatic coast. It facilitated the exchange of goods and supplies between Crusaders and traders, contributing to its economic importance. However, it also experienced conflicts, like its capture during the Fourth Crusade in 1202.

  6. camryn aldrich says:

    The Significance of Antioch
    Antioch was an ancient city founded by Selevcia I Nicator between 301-299 BCE and it was located on the Orontes River near the Amarus Mountains (Turkey). It was created after the battle of Ispus in 301 BCE. There were about 8 crusades that occurred in Antioch in the late 11th century that were organized by Western European Christians. The location of Antioch was a significant factor in the crusades because of its location. This allowed crusaders to receive supplies, reinforcements, and safety quickly. In 1098, Antioch fell to the Christians after an 8th month long war between the Muslims and Western European Christians. Later, Antioch became one of the most infamous cities for christianity.

    Work Cited
    “First Crusade: Siege of Antioch.” ThoughtCo,

    “Antioch | Modern and Ancient City, South-Central Turkey | Britannica.” Encyclopædia Britannica, 2019,

    “Search | Britannica.”, Accessed 26 Sept. 2023.

    • ella filipenko says:

      My topic relates to your topic because intolerance can affect groups or cultures relationship and can disrupt trading routes.

    • Ronan Schmidt says:

      My topic relates to yours because Antoich was the “cradle of Christianity” and it relates to mine because mine is the holy lands.

  7. Carson Hawes says:

    Glossary Entry: Jewish Communities during the Crusades
    Jewish communities during the Crusades refer to the Jewish populations living in Europe and the Middle East during the medieval religious wars known as the Crusades, primarily occurring from the 11th to the 13th centuries.
    Connection to the Crusades: These communities were significantly impacted by the Crusades as they often found themselves caught in the midst of conflict. During the First Crusade (1096-1099), some Crusaders targeted Jewish communities along their routes, leading to massacres in cities such as Mainz, Worms, and Jerusalem. Jews faced persecution, forced conversions, and displacement during these campaigns. The Crusaders’ violent actions against Jewish populations represent the broader atmosphere of religious intolerance during this period.
    Relevance and Significance: Jewish communities during the Crusades are relevant to the study of this historical period because they represent one of the groups affected by the religious intensity and violence that characterized the Crusades. Their experiences highlight the religious tensions and intolerance that played a significant role in shaping the era. Additionally, these events are vital in the significanthistory of Jewish-Christian relations and the impact of the Crusades on various religious communities.
    Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The Crusades: A History. Yale University Press, 2005.
    Chazan, Robert. European Jewry and the First Crusade. University of California Press, 1996.

  8. Sharon C says:

    Saladin was a Muslim Sultan, whose biggest achievement was unifying the separated Muslim groups, and winning back the Holy Lands. Saladin grew up being in the military under an uncle who was an important military commander and climbed military ranks under him and eventually became governor of Egypt when his uncle and this army campaign conquered Egypt. When the Crusaders started taking over the Muslim Holy Lands, Saladin was enraged at the mass amounts of Muslims that were murdered when the Holy Lands were conquered so Saladin had an idea of unifying the Sunni and Shia Muslims. When Saladin had power over the combined group of Muslims he led an army to the Holy Lands to win back Jerusalem, this battle would be called the Battle of Hattin. The Battle of Hattin ended with Saladin and his army winning back the Kingdom of Jerusalem, and instead of killing the leftover Christians in Jerusalem, Saladin let them buy their way to freedom. But eventually when the third Crusades came in they overran the Kingdom of Jerusalem and made Saladin withdraw his capital of Damascus.

    Works Cited
    Cartwright, Mark. “Saladin.” World History Encyclopedia, 18 Aug. 2018, Accessed 26 Sept. 2023.
    Walker, Paul E. “Saladin.” Britannica, Accessed 26 Sept. 2023.

    • Addison says:

      Saladin was one of the leaders who helped spread trade and who helped with the holy lands.

    • Ellie Edge says:

      Frederick Barbarossa relates to Saladin because they were both great military leaders and helped to defend their lands against invaders.

    • Kristina Kagerer says:

      This relates to my topic because Sladin was the leader of the Fatimid Muslims that fought the Crusaders in battle.

    • Jada Hall says:

      This relates to my topic because Saladin united the Sunni and Shia Muslims in which the Seljuk Turks were Sunni Islam, and therefore formed a combined army who fought for Saladin.

    • Audrina Brown says:

      Frederick Barbarossa relates to Saladin because they were both military leaders and help lead their armies in invasions.

  9. Bella Torres says:

    Elenor of Aquitaine was a powerful influential figure back in the Middle Ages during 1122-1204. Elenor was born in southern France, and lived an active life until her father died when she was 15. She inherited a great amount of estate making her a sought out bride throughout Europe. Elenor was placed under the king of France protection and then married to his son. She later became queen of England and France and led one of the Crusades to the Holy land. Elenor of Aquitaine led her own people on the second crusade but they lost against the Seljuq Turks.

  10. Victoria Tostemar says:

    My topic Excommunication and it relates to the Crusades because Christian Zara was dismissed on November 24, 1202. He promptly excommunicated the Venetians and Crusades. The purpose of excommunication is to remove a member of the church whose actions or teachings are contrary to the beliefs of the Christian community. The third innocent, he could not physically prevent or halt the Crusaders from attacking Byzantine cities, so he excommunicated them. The Latin Empire took possession of Constantiople after the attack, and this rule lasted for the following 60 years.

    Murray, Alexander . “Excommunication and Conscience in the Middle Age.” Oxford Academic , Oxford Academic , 10 July 2015, Accessed 26 Sept. 2023.

    Akin, Jimmy . “The Truth about Excommunication.” Catholic Answers , Catholic Answers , 14 July 2023, Accessed 26 Sept. 2023.

  11. Gabriella Wentzel says:

    Constantinople was a significant city during the time of the Crusades. It was the capital of the Byzantine Empire and a major target for the Crusaders. The Fourth Crusade resulted in the sack of Constantinople in 1204.The capture of Constantinople on April 13, 1204, in the Fourth Crusade was one of the epochal events of medieval history. The siege of Constantinople and the looting and burning of the city only deepened the intolerance between the Eastern and Western Christians.

    “The Impact of the Fourth Crusade: The First Fall of Byzantium.” TheCollector, 25 Dec. 2021,

    • Karina says:

      Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) had a historical connection to Zara (Zadar) through the Byzantine Empire. Zadar was influenced culturally, politically, and economically by Constantinople. This influence included trade, cultural exchange, and occasional direct governance by Byzantine authorities.

    • Victoria Tostemar says:

      Constantiople and Excommunication are related because Patriarch of Constantinople Michael Cerularius was excommunicated, starting the “Great Schism” that created the two largest denominations in Christianity.

    • Ellie Kleven says:

      My topic, the Byzantine Empire, relates to this because Constantinople was the Capital of the Byzantine Empire.

  12. Henry Olson says:

    “Moors” is a term used by Europeans to describe the Muslim people of North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula during the Middle Ages. The Moors are related to the crusades through their battles between eachother during the second crusade as the Moors had claimed the Iberian Peninsula, Spain, and Portugal. The Moors fell to the Christians in the 13th century after many battles were fought that led to them being conquered. The Moors were relevant between 711 C.E. and 1492 C.E. and they were relevant in the places they fought their battles and conquered countries. When the Moors rose to power they conquered these countries which caused the christians to battle due to the fact they were muslim to control the spread of the religion.

    • Henry Olson says:

      Sources :
      Who Are the Moors.

      Who Were the Moors.

      • Jaxon Henrie says:

        Bernard Of Clairvaux was connected to the second crusades and to the Moors due to his service in the Crusades. Bernard promoted the second crusade and convinced many people to join through is speeches.

      • Jaxon Henrie says:

        Bernard of Clairvaux was connected to the second crusade and the Moors because he was one of the biggest promoters for the second crusade. He convinced many to join this crusade and go to battle against the Moors.

  13. Jase Phonsavang says:

    Eddsa, located in present south-east Turkey, was very significant in the Second Crusade when it was captured by Muslim leader Zangi in 1144 CE, Eddsa was a christian town and because of that the second crusade was launched due to Eddsa being captured. The second crusade started due to the capture of Eddsa and the County of Eddsa which was near Jerusalem and they didn’t want to lose Jerusalem after winning it in the First Crusade. Eddsa was built in 1098 CE during the First Crusade as an outpost in the East and was destroyed in 1146CE being erased from history with some artifacts left behind. Eddsa was a christian city and was captured and needed to be reclaim from Christedom. Eddsa was lost and was never reclaimed ever again in the second crusade or any other crusade, everyone was killed and massacred when the arabs took over.
    Works Cited
    Cartwright, Mark. “Eddsa.” World History Encyclopedia, 25 Sept. 2018,,to%20reclaim%20it%20for%20Christendom. Accessed 26 Sept. 2023.
    “The Second Crusade.” Lords and Ladies, Accessed 26 Sept. 2023.

    • Addison says:

      Eddsa was one of the main places that trade took place. It was a very important place that helped trade flow better after it was slowed down.

      • Jada Hall says:

        The Seljuk Turks were part of the army that fought in the second Crusade and conquered the County of Edessa.

    • Bradley says:

      Your topic with the second crusade relates to my topic because it was a very important win or lose situation where Muslims and Christians fought against each other.

    • Jaxon Henrie says:

      Bernard of Clairvaux was one of the co-initiators of the second crusade. He was the main promoter and convinced many to join the unsuccessful crusade in which Eddsa was captured.

    • Cavan D. says:

      The Moors were Muslim and part of the capture of land in the second crusade.

  14. Kinsey Dufour says:

    The Knights Templar was a group of devout Christians during the time of the Crusades. They had a mission to protect European travelers who were visiting the holy land. They also played a big role in military operations during this time and they helped outnumbered christian forces in a number of battles. For example, they helped the Christians defeat an army led by the great Muslim commander Saladin. Their work during the crusades still circulates through modern culture today. Editors, editor. “Knights Templar.” History Channel, A&E Television
    Networks, 13 July 2017,
    the-knights-templar. Accessed 26 Sept. 2023.
    Davis III, Charles S., Sir. “A Brief History of the Crusades and The Knights
    Templar.” Electric Scotland, 18 Dec. 1997,
    kt1.htm. Accessed 26 Sept. 2023.

    • Mckinley A Nash says:

      This is related to my topic because they were very intolerant of Muslims. The Knights Templar were tolerant to Christians and helped them as much as they could.

    • Kristina Kagerer says:

      This is related to my topic “The Fatimids”, because the Fatimids fought the Knights Templar in the battle of the 1st crusade.

    • Meadow Carr says:

      The Knights Templar relates to nobility because the they were nobel to their religion and they stayed loyal all throughout the crusades. They fought for their religion and they didnt change before during and after the crusades.

  15. Branson Colman says:

    The Fatimids were a dynasty that ruled parts of the South Mediterranean and North Africa. This empire was started in 909 CE and ended in 1171. Before the Crusades, the Fatimids did not have a good relationship with the Byzantine Empire and were regularly in conflicts. Around 988 CE the two empires agreed on their borders and began to improve their relationships. During the first Crusade, the Byzantine Empire was working with the Fatmids to destroy the Saljuq Turks, an opposing empire that was trying to conquer central Asia and the Mediterranean. The result of this partnership helped strengthen the force of the Crusade and helped the Crusaders capture Jerusalem.

    Team, Editorial. “The Fatimid Caliphate: Contributions to Arts and Sciences.” Think Africa, 31 Oct. 2018, Accessed 26 Sept. 20

    “Episode 61: The Fatimids.”, Accessed 26 Sept. 2023. “Were Christians and Muslims Allies in the First Crusade?”, 28 Apr. 2018,

    • McKenzie Bryant says:

      My topic relates to yours because Saladin had also helped capture Jerusalem. Although the Fatimad’s helped Crusaders capture Jerusalem in the first crusade, Saladin helped take it back once again in the third Crusade.

    • Chanelle Rader says:

      My topic relates to yours as Constantinople was the capital of the Byzantine empire.

    • Zach Buss says:

      The Fatimids relate to the First Crusade because they helped Byzantines fight off the Turks.

  16. Jhanessa Phansisai says:

    During 1095 and 1096 the First Crusade increased the chances of persecution of the Jews. The first start of persecution seemed to occur in France. This was the first form of persecution that was widely spread in France. A little after they received a letter from the crusades warning them about another threat. Pope Urban II influenced the Christians in Europe to go against Muslims to war. Persecution is significant to the crusades because they wanted to get rid of the Jews and with persecution it allowed them to reclaim the Holy Land.

    Work Cited
    “Pope Urban II Orders First Crusade.” HISTORY, Accessed 26 Sept. 2023.
    Riley-Smith, Jonathan. “The First Crusade and the Persecution of the Jews.” Studies in Church History, vol. 21, Jan. 1984, pp. 51–72. Cambridge University Press, Accessed 26 Sept. 2023.

    • Carson Hawes says:

      During the First Crusade in 1095-1096, Jews faced persecution, highlighting the historical difficulties they endured and their experiences, which are relevant to my topic on Jewish.

  17. Mariah Fuller says:

    The city of Venice, Italy’s Capital, was constructed on a vast number of islands in the Adriatic Sea. From 1096 to 1099, Venice participated in the first curade as a state-sponsored endeavor. In Tyre, the Venetians won significant commercial advantages. Venetian invasions against Byzantine territory, both on the route to and from the Holy Land, prompted the Byzantines to confirm and expand their commercial rights with the empire. The Republic of Venice was a significant financial and naval power during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, a Crusader staging ground and the site of the Battle of Lepanto, as well as a crucial hub for trade (particularly in silk, grain, and spice) and the arts from the end of the 13th century until the beginning of the 18th century.


    Earth Watching. “Venice, Italy.” Earth.esa, 2022,
    Accessed 26 Sept. 2023.

    Enrow. “Post Classical History.” Erenow, 28 Nov. 2015,
    and%20Germany. Accessed 26 Sept. 2023.

  18. Zach Buss says:

    The First Crusade was a religious war that lead to a seqeuence of wars all about the holy lands. The First Crusade was between The Byzantine Empire of Western Europe and the Muslims who occupied the land. “The First Crusade (1095-1102) was a military campaign by western European forces to recapture the city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslim control. Conceived by Pope Urban II following an appeal from the Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos, the Crusade was a success with Christian forces taking control of Jerusalem on 15 July 1099”(World History Encyclopedia). The cause for the First Crusade was Christans believed that if they overtook the Holy lands it would be an act of devotion to God. “The Church promoted taking the cross and going on to the Holy Land as a demonstration of Christian love and devotion to God” (The Newberry). The end result of this crusades was the crusaders (The Byzantine) winning before shortly being taken over again by The Muslims.,Europeans%20captured%20Jerusalem%20in%201099.

    • Mckinley A. Nash says:

      This is related to my topic, intolerance. The reason being is the first crusade started a sequence of wars between Christianity and Islam which lasted for two centuries; and they were trying to take over the holy city of Jerusalem from Muslims, which clearly shows signs of intolerance.

    • Bradley says:

      Your topic relates to mine because it is based on the first crusade and is one of nine. All of the crusades had very similar agendas.

    • Chanelle Rader says:

      Your topic relates to mine as Constantinople was apart of the Byzantine Empire.

    • Gage York says:

      My topic, Venice, relates to the First crusade because when the crusade started, Venice joined as an enterprise state.

    • Branson Colman says:

      This topic relates to mine because my topic, the Fatmids because during the first Crusade, the Fatmids worked closely with the Byzantine crusaders and considered them allies. The Fatmids helped the Crusaders take Jerusalem for the first time.

    • Louis Krokos says:

      This topic relates to mine because the council of Cleremont initiated the first Crusade

    • ella filipenko says:

      MY topic relates to your topic because the Crusaders, driven by religion, held a strong intolerance towards non-Christan, as well as Muslims and jews. This intolerance led to a massacre during the Crusade.

    • Anthony N says:

      This relates to my topic, the phrase “God wills it,” relates to this because they used it during the crusades.

    • Ronan Schmidt says:

      Your topic relates to mine because the first crusade fought for the holy lands which is my topic.

    • Bella says:

      your topic relates to my topic because Tripoli was captured by crusaders in the first crusade.

    • Mariah Fuller says:

      This relates to my topic because Venice joined the First Crusade as a state enterprise and then developed trade relationships soon after, effectively aiding Venice in the Fourth Crusade when redirecting to Constantinople.

  19. Ellie Edge says:

    Frederick Barbarossa
    Frederick Barbarossa was the German Emperor during the third Crusade circa 1189. While he spent most of his time as emperor struggling with the papacy, he was recruited along with the King of France, Philip Augustus, and the King of England, HenryⅡto lead armies after multiple defeats during the second Crusade. Barbarossa led a sizable army through Asia Minor and Constantinople while trying to reach the Holy Land, but died trying to swim across a river in Seleucea. He was significant to the Crusades because his leadership was the main reason why the Third Crusade was one of the most successful out of all nine crusades. His achievements also led to the decentralization of the Holy Roman Empire, which before had been reliant on the Pope as the sole head of state.

    Works Cited

    “Medieval Sourcebook: Historia De Expeditione Frederici Imperatoris: The Third Crusade: Death of Frederick Barbarossa, 1190.”, Fordham University, Dec. 1997, Accessed 26 Sept. 2023.

    Sebetic, Brian. “Frederick I Barbarossa and Political Legitimacy.”, Wake Forest University, Accessed 26 Sept. 2023.

    • Sharon C says:

      This glossary is really good! Your topic of Philip Augustus kind of correlates to mine of Saladin, the reasoning for this is that they were both good military generals who both lead their armies to victory.

  20. Bella says:

    Tripoli was one of the last of the crusader states. The siege of Tripoli lasted from 1102 to 1109 and is located in northern Lebanon. Tripoli is one of the last regions that was captured by the crusaders, it was finally taken over on July 12, 1109. The aftermath of the siege of Tripoli led to the establishment of the County of Tripoli, which was the fourth crusader state. Overall, Tripoli did not end up winning and did get taken over by crusaders.

    Works Cited:
    Makalesi, Araştırma. “Tripoli City in the East Mediterranean in the Fight of
    Mamluk-Crusader.” Istanbul University Press, 5 May 2019,
    dogu-akdenizde-memluk-hacli-mucadelesinde-trablus-sehri. Accessed 26 Sept.

    Madden, Thomas F. “The Crusader States.” Britannica, 6 May 2020, Accessed 26 Sept.

  21. Grayson Stanek says:

    My topic for this glossary is Philip Augustus. Philip Augustus was the king of France that “turned the balance of power between France and England in favor of France.” He was king of France from 1180 to 1223 and was born August 21, 1165. At just 15 Augustus became one of the most influential French leaders. He was a patient, cunning monarch who valued administration and bookkeeping. He sought to retake western France from England from the beginning of his reign. In conclusion, Philip II Augustus’ rule constituted a critical turning point in French history. His victory in the Battle of Bouvines demonstrated the French monarchy’s victory over the German and English empires.

    Daileader, Philip. “The Reign of Philip II Augustus in France.” Wondrium Daily,
    Teaching Company, 3 Nov. 2020,
    gland%20in%20favor%20of%20France. Accessed 26 Sept. 2023.

    “Philip Summary.” Britiannica Summary,
    %20VII%2C%20the%20following%20year. Accessed 26 Sept. 2023.

  22. Jada Hall says:

    The Seljuk Turks: The Seljuk Turks were a group of fighters who were involved in the Crusades. Their army was strategic and known to be great warriors. Sunni Islam was their adopted religion, and they lived with an influence of Persian culture. During the years of the first Crusade (1095-1099), the Seljuk Turks occupied and established territory in Asia Minor, specifically the region of Anatolia, in which they successfully conquered years prior. The Seljuks’ primary goals were to secure their territory and gain control of their neighbors, along with the spread of Islam. In the first crusade, the Seljuk Turks lost a lot of their land due to their primary concerns of solely fighting for their territory. In the second crusade, the Seljuk Turks were able to fight back, and defeated the Holy Roman Emperor further conquering and taking the County of Edessa. The significance to the Crusades is that the Seljuk Turks were great warriors, in which they were strongly for the spread of Islam and worked to conquer several territories throughout Asia Minor. This influenced which groups took control of certain areas.

    Works Cited
    “First Crusade (The Crusades).” History Bits, Accessed 26 Sept. 2023.
    “The Rise of the Turks.” Students of History, Accessed 26 Sept. 2023.

    • Branson Colman says:

      This topic relates to mine because, during the first Crusade, the Fatmids and the Byzantine Crusaders worked together to defeat the Turks.

    • Zach Buss says:

      The Turks are related to the First Crusade because their victory helped Europe realize that they needed to get involved.

  23. Nevaeh Reynolds says:

    Crusades Glossary

    The third crusade was a time period from 1889 – 1192 in an attempt to reconquer the Holy Land after Jerusalem was captured by the Ayyubid sultan Saladin in 1187. This was led by three European Monarchs of Western christianity. They were popularly recognized as Philip ll of France, Richard I of England and Frederick I of the Holy Roman Emperor. Because of their success within reconquering the Holy Lands, it gave Westerners the privilege to maintain considerable states in Cyprus and on the Syrian Coast. Not long after their success, they were soon called “the kings crusades.”

    Works Cited
    Cartwright, Mark, and Christopher Tyerman. “Third Crusade.” World History Encyclopedia, 27 August 2018, Accessed 26 September 2023.
    “Third Crusade | Summary, Significance, Key Events, Location, & Leaders.” Britannica, 15 September 2023, Accessed 26 September 2023.

    • Robert McCabe says:

      Richard the Lionhearted was called that because of his bravery in the third crusade

    • Johnny Lamantia says:

      This related to my topic, Richard the Lion-Hearted. Richard fought in the Third Crusade with Frederick Barbarossa against Saladin. They both wanted to gain control of the Holy Land and were very influential in the Third Crusade.

  24. Louis Krokos says:

    Council of Clermont
    The Council of Clermont was the church assemblage for Pope Urban the Second, formed in 1095. It initiated the first crusade, with the goal of rescuing the Holy Land from the Turks. The Council was started on November 20, 1095, and was held mostly by Southern French Bishops, and some Northern French. They aided the Greeks in recovering Palestine from the muslims, and this initiated the three crusades that occurred later. The council ended their initiation by saying “God wills it”. This became the battle cry of the crusaders.

    Halsall, Paul. “Internet History Sourcebooks Project.”, 2019,
    “Council of Clermont | European History.” Encyclopædia Britannica, 2019,

    • Naomi says:

      The council of Clermont triggered the first crusade which lead to all of the others, it was the thing to set off all the other crusades

      • Quinn says:

        The Council of Clermont relates to my topic because Pope Urban the second was the reason for the Council of Clermont.

    • Carson Hawes says:

      The Council of Clermont in 1095, where the call for the First Crusade was made with the goal of reclaiming the Holy Land, is historically relevant to the Jewish topic as it reflects the religious and political context that influenced Jewish communities during the Crusades.

  25. Caiden Colman says:

    The Second Crusade was a military campaign organized by Pope Eugenius III and European nobles to recapture the city of Edessa in Mesopotamia from the Muslims. Two well respected generals, King Louis VII of France and Emperor Conrad III of Germany were in charge of leading the Second Crusades. The Crusades passed through many great cities including Ratisbon, Acre and Constintonople. During the Second Crusade there was a land route and a sea route. The Second crusade lasted from 1145 to 1149 after the muslims defeated the Crusaders at Damasus. In the end, the second was a failure for the crusaders and a victory for the Muslims. It would ultimately have a significant influence on the fall of Jerusalem and it would eventually give rise to the Third Crusade.

    Work Cited
    Cartwright, Mark. “Second Crusade.” World History Encyclopedia, 17 July 2018,

    “The Second Crusade.” Yale University Press,

  26. Owen Harth says:

    The Muslims were fighting back against the crusaders who wanted the “holy land” helb by the muslims. They were the reason for the crusades as they held the holy land and the crusaders and the pope believed that it was rightfully theirs. The crusades lasted from 1096 to 1271 making a very long impact on the region. The muslims during the crusades were relevant in the middle east or the “holy land”. It is significant to the crusades because it caused the crusades because the muslims were occupying the holy land. Muslims during the crusades were in war and they lost and gained land from the crusaders; they also lost a lot of people fighting in the wars.

  27. Haden Petrone says:

    King Louis VII
    King Louis VII was the ruler of France between 1137 and 1180 and was married to Eleanor of Aquitaine. King Louis was one of the leaders of the second crusade, which happened from 1145 to 1149. King Louis was relevant because he helped lead the Second Crusade. One of the significant events was the defeat at the battle of Damascus.

    Works Cited
    Fordham University. 26 Jan. 1996, Accessed 26 Sep. 2023.
    “King Louis VII.” Wikipedia,,King%20Henry%20II%20of%20England. Accessed 26 Sep. 2023.

  28. Ellie Kleven says:

    The Byzantine Empire’s significance in the Crusades led to the advancements of achievements that would contribute to the Crusades as a whole. The Byzantine Empire, which was a continuation of the Roman Empire, was restored in 330. Its capital was Constantinople, which would later be important to the goals of the Fourth Crusade. The Fourth Crusade’s goal was to reestablish Christian rule over Jerusalem, and Constantinople would help achieve that. In 1204, The Venetians (people of Venice) conquered Constantinople. At this time, Constantinople was considered the political center of Christianity, and by conquering it, it gave the Venetians more power over religious subjects. The conquering Constantinople led to the fall of the Byzantine Empire and to one of the achievements of the Fourth Crusade.

    Saputo, Ryan. “Barbarians and Heretics: Anti-Byzantine and Anti-Western
    Sentiments in Crusade-Era Chronicles, 1096–1204.” Inquiry Journal,
    al%20support. Accessed 26 Sept. 2023.

    Harris, Jonathan. “Byzantium and the Crusades.” Reviews in History, Accessed 26 Sept. 2023.

    • Arne nedwick says:

      this relates to mine because the build up this crusade lead to mine.

    • Mariah Fuller says:

      This relates to my topic because the Treaty of Venice was significant during the Fourth Crusade. The Republic of Venice contracted with the Crusader leaders to build a dedicated fleet to transport their invasion force.

  29. Naomi says:

    The Council of Clermont was a council created by Pope Urban Ⅱ declaring church reform, in November of 1095. The council was not a “council” of people already set in place, it was more of an assembly for whoever wanted to listen. This council was mostly attended by bishops of Southern France and from other parts of Europe. Pope Urban called this assembly to discuss the matter with the masses and invoke a passion for fighting in the people to reclaim the Holy Land from the Muslims. Pope Urban spoke about “God wills it” insinuating that it was the christian and godly thing to do, to hopefully strike the hearts of the Christians who heard it, and would hopefully make them eager to join and fight the battle alongside everyone else. This resulted in the First Crusade being sparked.

    Works Cited
    Pope Urban II Orders First Crusade, 24 November 2009, Accessed 26 September 2023.
    Cartwright, Mark, and Jean Colombe. “Council of Clermont.” World History Encyclopedia, 22 October 2018, Accessed 26 September 2023.
    Catholics, Roman. “Council | History, Types & Significance.” Britannica, Accessed 26 September 2023.

  30. Audrina Brown says:

    Frederick Barbarossa
    Around 1189, when the third Crusade was taking place, Frederick Barbarossa was the German Emperor. He battled the papacy for most of his reign as emperor, but following the second Crusade’s several defeats, he was chosen, along with Philip Augustus of France and Henry II of England, to command an army. Barbarossa tried to cross a river near Seleucea while leading a strong army through Asia Minor and Constantinople on his way to the Holy Land, but he drowned while attempting to do so. Because the Third Crusade was led by him, it was one of the most successful of the nine crusades, making him important to the Crusades. His accomplishments also resulted in the decentralization of the Holy Roman Empire, which had previously been dependent on.

    Frederick Barbarossa. 10 May 1998,,Roman%20Empire’s%20greatest%20medieval%20emperors. Accessed 24 Sept. 2023.
    Was Frederick Barbarossa the First Holy Roman Emperor. E-book ed. file.

  31. Neil Lefler says:

    The Jews were being targeted during the crusades. Christians wanted to either convert all of them to Christianity or else kill them. Many Jews were banished from their home countries throughout Europe. Holy Roman emperor Louis VI said, “You belong to us, body and belongings, and we can dispose of them and do with you as we please.” This was the general attitude all Christians had toward Jews. Other Jewish communities in Speyer, Worms, and mainz were attacked. The Jews were mercilessly slaughtered and attacked while in Synagogues.

    Works Cited:

    Levy, Joshua. “How The Crusades Affected Medieval Jews in Europe and Palestine.”

    “Medieval antisemitism.”

  32. Alice Cleary says:


    Persecution is the act of ill-treatment or blatant discrimination primarily based on someone’s ethnicity, sexual orientation, and political and religious beliefs, and during the crusades, the Jews faced a majority. During the year 1096 and beyond, the crusades were launched to drive the Jews and Christians out of the Holy land. Though the crusades were targeted at both groups, the Jews were the ones who faced the most hostility. Within the time period of the first crusades, the Jews would often experience their family members being lost, and their property and homes being destroyed. The Christians of that period also viewed them agnostically, despite the crusaders attacking both of them, the Christians remained unsympathetic towards their situation.

    Jewish People Caught in the Crusades | Encyclopedia.Com. Accessed 26 Sept. 2023.

    Riley-Smith, Jonathan. “The First Crusade and the Persecution of the Jews.” Studies in Church History, vol. 21, Jan. 1984, pp. 51–72. Cambridge University Press,

    • Neil Lefler says:

      This relates my topic because the Jews were persecuted for the duration of the Crusades and for some time after.

  33. Mckinley A Nash says:

    My topic is intolerance, and this relates to the crusades because it was the time where christians wanted to stop the expansion of Islam; hence the intolerance part to the crusades. It was relevant throughout the entirety of the crusades because the main goal of the crusades was to stop the spread of Islam. My topic is relevant everywhere around Europe and the middle east because the people of the two religions did not tolerate each other throughout the entirety of the crusades. The part that is significant about intolerance being related to the crusades is how crucial of a role it has on both sides. Christians were heavily intolerant of muslims, same with muslims being heavily intolerant with Christians. If muslims stopped expanding and they both respected each other, the crusades would have never happened. The significant result was the increased intolerance between Christians and Muslims after the crusades.

    What Was the Purpose of the Crusades? | Britannica. Accessed 26 Sept. 2023.

    Cartwright, Mark. “The Crusades: Consequences & Effects.” World History Encyclopedia,–effects/. Accessed 26 Sept. 2023.

  34. Charlee Carroll says:

    The Sixth Crusade or also called the Crusade of Frederick II happened from 1228 to 1229 CE and was caused by the earlier failure of the European Crusaders in their attempt to capture the city of Jerusalem. This crusade relates to the other crusades because all of their primary objectives were to reclaim for Christianity for the Holy Lands, to stop the expansion of Muslim states, and to recapture territories that have become Christian. In this crusade there was significantly less fighting and it was rather more diplomatic maneuvering done by Frederick the II. This crusade is significant because it was a military mission to recapture the Holy Land and Jerusalem and it began five years after the failure of the Fifth Crusade. The result of the Sixth Crusade was the Kingdom of Jerusalem regaining some control over Jerusalem and ensuing some control over the Holy Land for fifteen years.

    Works Cited-
    Cartwright, Mark. “Sixth Crusade.” World History Encyclopedia. World History Encyclopedia, 10 Sep 2018, Accesses 26 September 2023.

    Beck, Elias. “Sixth Crusade.” HISTORY CRUNCH, 17 Nov. 2019, Accessed 26 Sept. 2023.

    • Bronwyn Bailey says:

      This topic connects to the Seventh Crusade because the goal in both Crusades was to recapture Jerusalem from the hands of the Muslims.

  35. Gage York says:

    Venice is a city in northern Italy that sits on the Adriatic Sea. The seaborne crusade was started in 1122 by Domenico Michiel, the Doge of Venice. On August 8th, 1122, the Venetian fleet of over 120 ships and over 15,000 troops departed from the Venetian Lagoon. This is believed to be the first Crusade in which troops brought horses. Venice is relevant from about 1096 to 1204. Venice was a part of the First Crusade through the Fourth Crusade. The city was also a very large financial and maritime power during the crusades. The most significant crusade out of Venice was the Venetian Crusade in which the crusaders were able to capture Tyre.

    Riley-Smith, Jonathan. “The Venetian Crusade of 1122-1124.”,
    Accessed 26 Sept. 2023.

    “Venice.” Erenow, 9 June 2015,
    Accessed 26 Sept. 2023.

    • Ian Henton says:

      This topic relates to mine because Venice was the driving force behind the siege of Zara

    • Tyrone Ward says:

      This relates to my topic the Fifth Crusade because the Hungarian king who led the Fifth Crusade had to sell his land rights for transportation of ships from Venice for the crusade.

    • Grayson says:

      My Topic is like your topic because my topic, Philip Augustus, was the King of France and France borders Italy, and Venice is in Italy.

    • Ellie Kleven says:

      This relates to my topic, the Byzantine Empire, because the Venetians conquered Constantinople in the fourth Crusade.

  36. Nyx Boyd says:

    The Principality of Antioch, which can be shortened to just Antioch, is a Crusader State that was occasionally ruled by the Byzantine Empire. Antioch was founded by European Christians in 1098. The Principality of Antioch included Antioch as its capital, which was mostly Christian and the leading commercial center of the Latin East. One of the notable differences between Antioch and the other Crusader States was that its population was predominantly Christain. This was because in 1161 CE Maria of Antioch (Raymond Poitiers’, the Prince of Antioch, daughter) married the current Emperor of the Byzantine Empire, Emperor Manuel I, who reigned from 1143-1180 CE. The Byzantine Empire was very focused on Christianity, so this carried over to Antioch.

    Works Cited

    Cartwright, Mark. “Crusader States.” World History Encyclopedia, 1 Nov. 2018, Accessed 26 Sep. 2023.

    The Editors of the Encyclopedia Britannica and Amy Tikkanen. “Antioch.” Encyclopedia
    Britannica, Accessed
    29 Sep. 2023.

  37. Meadow Carr says:

    Nobility, the quality or state of being noble in character, quality, or rank. Nobility in the crusades often consisted of a lot of favors that were done for kings, queens and Dukes. Nobles fought in the crusades for long periods of time to gain their respect and nobility. Nobility was relevant all through the crusades. Nobility was relevant in France and England. Nobility described the soldiers that were fighting in the Crusades and how they stayed loyal to the kings, queens and dukes. Nobility caused soldiers to fight very hard to die nobilaty during the crusades.

    Work cited

    • Audrina Brown says:

      Frederick Barbarossa relates to noblity because he was a credibile leader that had quality work and was trustworthy.

    • Tyrone Ward says:

      This relates to my topic, the Fifth Crusade. The Fifth Crusade was led by a king instead of the Papacy itself.

  38. Tyrone Ward says:

    The Fifth Crusade was a crusade that was part of numerous other crusades. Crusades were wars that were sponsored by the Papacy to take control of the Holy Land. (Jerusalem) The Fifth Crusade took place during 1217 to 1221 and was based in Egypt. King Andrew of Hungary was the leader of the Fifth Crusade and had to take many sacrifices to be able to fund his army for its campaign. The Fifth Crusade was a staggering defeat according to History Dat on youtube there was a whole army that drowned in the Cairo River and multiple armies that were wiped out by larger Muslim armies. The total result was the defeat of the crusaders to the muslim defenders.

    • Dawson Norene says:

      This relates to my topic, The Holy Land. It relates because the fifth crusade was a mission set to take control over the Holy Land, also known as Jerusalem.

  39. Richard Coeur de Lion was the king of England from 1189-1199. His activeness in the third crusade from 1189-1192 made him a popular king. Richard lived from 1157- 1199, he was a duke of Aquitaine (from 1168), Poiters (from 1172), Normandy (from 1172) and a count of Anjou (from 1189), as well as king of England. He was a hero of countless romantic legends, more recent historians think he might not have been as kind. Richard took Acre in 1191 during the third crusade in the Battle of Arsouf. .

    • Grayson says:

      Mt topic is like your topic because Philip Augustus was the king of France whilst yours was the king of England.

    • Bella Torres says:

      This relates to my topic because Elenor of Aquitaine was in England and when her father died she inherited all his estate.

    • Isabella Torres says:

      This relates to my topic because Elenor of Aquitaine was in England and when her father died she inherited all his estate.

  40. Logan Brown says:

    My topic is Philip Augustus, but during the time he was known as Philipe Auguste II king of France. He is related to the crusades because a major figure in the Third Crusade to the Holy Land. Philip Augustus was relevant through 1191 to 1223 due to the power and influence he had, he also was well known for leading France to becoming very prosperous. He was relevant because he was one of the first great Capetian kings of medieval France. His significance to the crusades was that he directed his army and knights in the 3rd crusade. The significant results of Philip Augustus were the battles he won and the riches he brought to France. He lead France and the Third Crusade to great victories.

    Philippe Auguste II King of France. Accessed 26 Sept. 2023.

    • Dawson Norene says:

      This topic relates to my topic of The Holy Land. It relates because Phillip Augustus was a major figure in the third crusade which was targeted to The Holy Land to try and conquer this region.

  41. Troy Carte says:


    During the duration of trade during the crusades event, trade increased as Europeans traveled and became more familiar with exotic goods. Various merchants traded with Constantinople, Syria, Egypt, Christians and Spanish Muslims across the Mediterranean. Trade during the Crusades event was not started because of this, but because of the want and need for rare goods that they found out about through others. The Crusades used trade as a way to ensure that the Byzantine stayed safe from the threat of Turks. Also, a good thing about the trade is that they used it as a way to free the Holy Land.

    Works Cited
    “Cross-Cultural Trade and Cultural Exchange during the Crusades.” The Sultan and the Saint, Accessed 26 Sept. 2023.
    “The Crusades.” Encyclopedia Britannica, Accessed 26 Sept. 2023.

  42. Kristina Kagerer says:

    Glossary Entry: The Fatimids

    The Fatimids were an Islamic Dynasty in the time of the Crusades. The Fatimids were known for launching several raids and fights against the Crusaders where they fought in Palestine in the very 1st Crusade after the Fatimid Caliphate capture of Jerusalem. Their battles with the Crusaders were present in the time of 1099 A.D. in Palestine near the Jordan River. The significance of the Fatimids are strong because they were the enemy of the Crusaders for the 1st crusade. This 1st battle was happily won by the Crusaders, without that victory, the Crusades might not have continued their battles.


  43. Keira Trotter says:

    The Children’s Crusade was a failed crusade for European Christians to make a second Latin kingdom in the Holy Land in Jerusalem. It took place in 1212 and it was never approved by the pope to be considered an actual crusade. The Children’s Crusade relates to the crusades because it was said that there was a boy that was trying to convert Muslims to Christians. The Children’s Crusade started in Germany and was led southwards to Mainz and Speyer. The children’s Crusade is relevant because a man by the name of Nicholas claimed that Jesus told him to crusade and he gained thousands of followers from young adults to children and started leading them over the alps to Jerusalem to convert the Muslims to Christianity. This topic was relevant in the summer of 1212 when it first came about and that’s when thousands of younger people went out to recover Jerusalem from Muslims after taking crusading vows. In September the Children’s Crusade did not reach the Holy Land but it is now known as the first European youth movement. This crusade lacked official sanction but it did help initiate the start of the fifth crusade in 1218.

    Works Cited:

    Dickson, Gary. “Children’s Crusade.” Britannica, 30 Jan. 2009, Childrens-Crusade#:~:text=Lasting%20only%20from%20May%20to,the%20first%20European %20youth%20movement. Accessed 26 Sept. 2023.

    “Children’s Crusade.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 24 Aug. 2023, Accessed 26 Sept. 2023.

    • Charlee Carroll says:

      This relates to the sixth crusade because both were failed attempts to covert people to different religions and both did not capture the holy lands.

  44. Zachary Zollinger says:

    Ninth Crusade
    The Ninth Crusade was the last crusade, it immediately followed the Eighth which was a total failure. It took place from 1271 until 1272 CE. The Ninth Crusade was mainly focused in Acre where Lord Edward helped defend the city against the Muslims. The Crusaders also carried out raids against the local Muslims. The Ninth Crusade is significant because it was the last of the Crusades and it marked the last time that a European force traveled to fight in the Holy Land. One of the significant results of the Ninth Crusade include when they stopped an attack against the city Acre in December of 1271. After the Crusaders and Lord Edward left Acre it was soon besieged by the Muslims who quickly recaptured the city.

    Sources Cited
    Beck, Elias. “Ninth Crusade.” History Crunch, 17 Nov. 2019, Accessed 26 Sept. 2023.

    Hanson, Marilee. “Ninth Crusade (1271 – 1272)”, January 12, 2022

  45. Dawson Norene says:

    The Holy Land was a sacred place to the Jews, Christians, and Muslims. It was found in Jerusalem. The crusaders would travel to the Holy Land to try and claim Jerusalem from the Muslims. The Holy Land was the center of attention for the Crusades from 1095 to 1291. The Holy Land is relevant for people all around the world because they wanted to claim it and it is a very special place. The Holy Land was the center of the crusades, where the christians tried to conquer this ground for three straight centuries. There were 9 whole crusades whose main goal was to claim this ground, but not all of them made it. None of them were successful enough to claim the Holy Land. It is estimated that 1.7 million people died fighting for this land which is remarkable. The Muslims held their ground the whole time.

    The Holy Land – Hebraic Collections: An Illustrated Guide (Library of Congress – African & Middle Eastern Division). Accessed 26 Sept. 2023.

    “Crusades.” Wikipedia, 12 Sept. 2023. Wikipedia,

    • Bronwyn Bailey says:

      The Seventh Crusade is connected to the Holy Land because the goal of the Seventh Crusade was to reclaim Jerusalem (the Holy Land) when the Muslims had control over it.

    • Kinsey Dufour says:

      My topic, the Knights Templar relates to the Holy Land because they had a mission to protect the European travelers who were visiting the Holy Land.

    • camryn aldrich says:

      My city, Antioch, relates to the Holy Lands because Antioch was also a sought-after part of the Holy Lands in the crusades

  46. Cavan D. says:

    Moors, they were the Muslim people of North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula during the Middle Ages. Although there were many crusade’s, during the second Crusade, the Moors fought the Christians in 1147 after the Moors claimed the Iberian Peninsula, Spain and Portugal. One of the major fights occurred in Lisbon and went on from July 1 to October 25. The Moors then fell to the Christians in the 13th Century after many fights that lasted months. The Moors were relevant in the areas the battles occurred and from 711 C.E. and 1492 C.E.

    Study. Nathan Murphy, 28 Jan. 2022,
    slims%20or%20Black%20people. Accessed 26 Sept. 2023.

    Wikipedia. Jean Colombe, 26 Sept. 2023,
    %20Land. Accessed 26 Sept. 2023.

  47. Ian Henton says:

    Zadar (Zara) is a city in modern day Croatia, notable for the unprecedented events that occurred there during the 4th crusade. It was laid siege to in 1202 by the crusaders on the behalf of Venice. This stemmed from an agreement in which Venice would provide transport to the holy land for the crusading armies, but a lack of crusader funds caused the Venetians to instead request them to lay siege to the city in lieu of payment. This move was highly unpopular both with the church and many of the crusaders, as Zadar was a christian city. Many of the crusaders refused to take part in the siege out of protest, and the Pope threatened excommunication of both the crusading army as well as the Venetians, but these actions failed to deter the Venetians or the majority of the crusaders. The action of crusaders laying siege to Zadar foreshadowed the far more devastating siege of Constantinople during the same crusade, which would lead to the occupation and division of the Byzantine Empire, effectively marking the end of Byzantium as a relevant world power.

    Sources Cited:
    Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. “Siege of Zara”. Encyclopedia Britannica, 27 Jul. 2023, Accessed 26 September 2023.
    “Siege of Zara.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 16 Mar. 2023,
    wiki/Siege_of_Zara. Accessed 26 Sept. 2023.

  48. Bradley Goodman says:

    The siege of Tripoli occurred in 1551 when the Ottoman Turks and Barbary pirates conquered the Knights of Malta in the Red Castle of Tripoli, modern Libya. The Spanish had established an outpost in Tripoli in 1510, and Charles V remitted it to the Knights in 1530. Tripoli was one of the last regions captured by the crusaders and under a united Christian onslaught, Tripoli fell on July 12, 1109, completing the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Significant results of the capture included 5000 captured christians brought on galleys to Tripoli.

    article title – History Behind The County Of Tripoli (1109–1289) URL – Website title About history Date Accessed – September 26, 2023 Date published – November 23, 2021

    Article title
    Siege of Tripoli (1551)
    Website title
    Date accessed
    September 26, 2023

  49. Jaxon Henrie says:

    Bernard of Clairvaux was born near Dijon in 1090. He was both a monk and a huge supporter of the crusades. Throughout his life, Bernard, traveled extensively in service of the church. However, he was most relevant in Clairvaux Village, located in northeastern France. He emerged as one of the co-initiators of the second crusade in 1145–1149. Bernard gave many speeches pertaining to love and in 1130 – 1145 he gave speeches promoting the ideas of the second crusade. However, his efforts were not rewarded as the second crusade was unsuccessful.

    “Explore the Life and Times of St. Bernard of Clairvaux, a Monk of the
    Cistercian Order during the Crusades.” Britannica,
    aux%20emerged,Bernard%20of%20Clairvaux%20was%20canonized. Accessed 26 Sept.

    Halsall, Paul. “Internet Medieval Sourcebook: St. Bernard: Apologia for the
    Second Crusade.” Fordham University, Dec. 1997,
    source/bernard-apol.asp. Accessed 26 Sept. 2023.

  50. Valentina Albrecht says:

    Christianity is a major religion that teaches the life and death of Jesus of Narareth in the 1st century ce. Christianity relates to the crusades because it was considered to be the holy wars by the Christian society at the time. The crusades also successfully expanded the reach of Christianity and Western civilization. Christianity was relevant in 1050-1300 CE during the crusades. Christianity was relevant in the Middle East during the crusades. The significance of christianity to the crusades was to stop the expansion of Muslim states, and to reclaim Christianity the Holy Land in the Middle East, as well as recapturing territories that had previously been Christian. The significant results of Christianity on the crusades was that the power of the pope was elevated during the crusades and The Roman Catholic Church experienced an increase in its wealth.

    • Naomi says:

      This is relevant to my topic because the council of Clermont was called to discuss how god “willed” everyone to fight in the crusades for the holy land, and how it was godly to fight.

    • Naomi says:

      the council of Clermont was called by the christians to discuss how god “willed” everyone to fight in the crusades for the holy land, and how it was godly to fight.

    • Jedidiah Tueller says:

      This relates to my topic because the crusaders who sacked Constanople were christian, so It can help me learn about the raiders.

  51. Zaedan Bales says:

    Eighth Crusade:
    The Eighth Crusade took place in Ifriqiya, Tunisia. My topic Relates to the Crusades because it is a crusade. The Eighth Crusade was relevant in the 1270s. The Eighth Crusades was the second Crusade launched by Louis the eighth; the only real significance of these crusades was the change in economic rights.

    Sources Cited:,Crusade%20(1209%E2%80%9329).

    • Zachary Zollinger says:

      The Eighth Crusade relates to my topic the Ninth Crusade because the Eighth crusade would have been the last except that it was such a loss that the European leaders thought that they needed a Ninth Crusade to follow up the Eighth.

  52. Chanelle Rader says:

    Constantinople was the capital of the Byzantine Empire. Crusades had involved the Byzantine Empire often, in fact one crusade attacked the capital. Constantinople was relevant throughout the years 300-1400, and was attacked during 1200. As crusaders were from Western Christian, which attacked Constantinople that was Eastern Christian. The fourth crusade had been about attacking Constantinople, instead of Jerusalem. The crusaders had ransacked Constantinople, depriving it of the treasures that had been collected throughout the centuries. Due to that, Constantinop0le never fully returned to its once glory before the fourth crusade.

  53. Bronwyn Bailey says:

    The Seventh Crusade occurred from 1248 to 1254 CE. It was led by Louis IX of France, and started in France and ended in Egypt. This crusade was launched because the earlier crusades (such as the Fifth and Sixth Crusades) failed to reclaim Jerusalem, which the Muslims had taken over. Jerusalem was considered the “Holy Land,” and was very significant in Christianity, which caused Christians to attempt to conquer it and claim it. However, Egypt was also a destination for the crusaders, and one of their goals was to weaken Egypt by conquering it. The crusaders in the Seventh Crusade won a battle in the citadel of al-Mansurah, but caught a plague and started heading back to Damietta. When they attempted this, Egyptians captured and weakened the already weak Crusaders.

    Beck, Elias. “Seventh Crusade.” HISTORY CRUNCH – History Articles, Biographies,
    Infographics, Resources and More, 17 Nov. 2019,
    seventh-crusade.html#/. Accessed 26 Sept. 2023.
    “The Seventh Crusade.” History Learning,
    the-crusades/seventh-crusade/. Accessed 26 Sept. 2023.

    • Charlee Carroll says:

      This relates to my topic because both crusades were launched due to failure from other crusades and both were trying to reclaim the holy lands.

    • Zachary Zollinger says:

      This relates to my topic the Ninth Crusade becasue when the Crusaders of the Ninth Crusade left Acre which realates to when the Crusaders left because when both crusades tried to leave it resulted in a loss for the crusaders

    • Zaedan Bales says:

      Just like my topic, The Eighth Crusades were also launched by Louis XI, the second crusade launched by this ruler.

  54. Quinn says:

    Who, what or where is your topic?
    Pope Urban II was born in the Odo of Lagery in 1042. He was the head of the Roman Catholic Church from 1088-1099.

    How does your topic relate to the Crusades, Where and when?
    In November of 1095, Pope Urban II Preached a famous speech at the Council of Clermont. He lead Christians to unite and recapture the city of Jersusalem. He was relevant to Southern Europe.

    What is significant about Pope Urban II during the Crusades? What were the results?
    Pope Urban II lead to a further centralization of the Roman Catholic Church and also the expansion of Papal administration. ]

  55. Jaeda Morris says:

    St. Bernard of Clairvaux (1091-1153) was a saint of Christian faith who founded a military order known as Knights Templar in 1118. During the Crusades, the Templars fought to defend the areas of the Crusader States as well as Holy Land from the Palestines. St. Bernard was a big advocate of the Crusades, as his goal was to communicate the importance of humility and love for God. In 1146, he conducted a sermon to encourage people to join the second Crusade after the failure of the first. The crusades, as well as his military order, outlived him as they carried out their duties to defend and support the Catholic religion and carry out a successful Crusade.

    The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica. “Templar | History, Battles, Symbols, & Legacy.” Encyclopædia Britannica, 25 May 2018,

    St. Bernard of Clairvaux | Our Lady of Dallas.

  56. Ronan Schmidt says:

    The Holy Lands is the general area around Isreal with the “Main” Holy Land being the city of Jerusalem. The Holy Lands were the focus of the Crusades and the only reason they happened was because the city of Jerusalem has massive importance to Christianity (Christ was crucified and resurrected in the city of Jerusalem). The Holy Lands were relevant throughout all of the Crusades because they were the focus of all the attacks (Israel and Europe 1096-1261). The Crusades entirely focused on recapturing the Holy Land from the Muslims and the fights were so bloody because the lands had influence on Islam, Judaism, and Christianity. In the end, there were massive losses on both sides and the Christians only held the holy lands for an insignificant amount of time, falling back into the hands of the Muslims.

    Works Cited
    Black, Elias. “What is the Holy Land in the Crusades.” History Crunch, 17 Sept. 2019, Accessed 26 Sept. 2023.
    “The Crusades: Definition, Religious Wars & Facts.” History, A&E Television Networks, 28 Mar. 2023,

    • Troy Carte says:

      My topic is the trade that happened during the crusades. I can relate my topic to yours because trade was revived during the crusades that were fought on the holy land.

    • Peter says:

      This topic relates to Muslim because the holy land was the Muslims focus and place they valued.

    • Valentina Albrecht says:

      This relates to my topic of Christianity because The Holy Lands was the origin of Christianity and where Jesus was born and resurrected.

    • Caiden Colman says:

      This relates to my topic because the Second Crusade was launched with a goal to reclaim Jerusalem. If Jerusalem wasn’t a place the crusades most likely would not have taken place.

    • Bella Torres says:

      My topic relates to the Holy land because Eleanor of Aquitaine participated in the second crusade to protect the Holy Lands.

    • Caiden Colman says:

      This relates to my topic because the Second Crusades mission was to get back Jeruslaem. If Jerusalem wasn’t a place the crusades most likely would not have taken place.

  57. Enzo says:

    Edessa was a city located in what is now Central Macedonia. Edessa relates to the Crusades due to its significance as a once Christian land. It was captured by the Muslims and their leader Zangi. and sparked the Second Crusade as an attempt to reclaim it for Christendom. Edessa and the events that followed were relevant in the year 1144 and 1147-1149. My topic is relevant in Edessa. Edessa is significant in relation to the crusades because it was the catalyst of the Second Crusade. It was also captured by Muslims in which the Christians attempted to reclaim it back for the Christian world. Most important battles that occurred were: the Siege of Edessa and Damascus. The Second Crusades that took place in Edessa resulted in a failed attempt to reclaim the land from the Muslims. All crusaders died and some Muslims with a toll of 30,000 or more Crusaders died it’s unknown what the precise number was and about 10,000 Muslims this is unknown as well.

    County of Edessa | Crusader State, Asia | Britannica. Accessed 26 Sept. 2023.

    Siege of Damascus | Summary | Britannica. Accessed 26 Sept. 2023.

  58. Saladin was the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty. Saladin had defeated a massive army of Crusaders during the battle of Hattin. As well as capturing the city of Jerusalem in 1187. He was most present during the battle of Hattin in Jerusalem, during the third crusade in 1187-1192. Saladin became very influential to the people in his time with his leadership and guidance. His interference with the Crusades resulted in bringing together Muslims and taking back Jerusalem.


    • Troy Carte says:

      My topic is trade and I can relate this to my topic because trade was prodominent during the Crusades.

    • Johnny Lamantia says:

      This relates to King Richard the Lion-Hearted, my topic. Saladin was a Muslim ruler who fought against King Richard. He defended the Holy Land and kept control of it while Richard tried to gain control of it. In addition, Saladin and King Richard ended up making a truce that allowed Christians to freely access the Holy Land.

  59. Eleanor of Aquitaine was queen consort of both Louis VII of France and Henry II of England. My topic relates to the crusades as she started to be involved during the second crusade to protect the fragile Latin kingdom of Jerusalem. This took place from 1147 to 1149. My topic is significant as she was there during the second crusade. The only significant event to come after the crusade was that she had begun to astrange herself from Louis VII.

  60. Morgan Mariscal says:

    Excommunication, In a church setting, excommunication is when a person is either cut off from fellowship within a church or they are barred from participating in the sacraments. Any who are guilty in deceit with regard to the measures intended to help fund the crusade called for by the council are automatically excommunicated.(4th century, church documents)
    The purpose of excommunication is to exclude from the church those members who have behaviors or teachings contrary to the beliefs of a Christian community.Lose rights, such as the right to the sacraments, but they are still bound to the obligations of the law; their rights are restored when they are reconciled through the remission of the penalty.

  61. Arne Nedwick says:

    Albigensian Crusades was a campaign that was started by Pope Innocent III to end Catharism in Languedoc, what is now southern France. The Crusade was prosecuted mostly by the French crown and promptly took on a political aspect. It resulted in the large reduction of practicing Cathars and a realignment of the County of Toulouse with the French crown. The culture of Languedoc was also destroyed. This crusade was from 1209- 1229. The importance of the Albigensian Crusades was that the Crusade did not eliminate Catharism, it eventually enabled the French king to establish his authority over the south. There were over 1 million deaths during this Crusade.

  62. Peter says:

    Muslim is the name for someone who is a follower of Islam, Islam was the religion created and founded by prophet Muhammad. Muslims tie into the crusades simply by the fact their religion was the reason why the crusades even happened. Christians focus on the crusades was to take back the “Holy Land” from Islam, also to end the spread of Islam. Muslims were significant to the crusades because they were the Christians main opp. The Muslim leader Muhammad migrated to Medina in 622 c.e.

    Islam | Religion, Beliefs, Practices, & Facts | Britannica. 7 Sept. 2023,

  63. Shyanne says:

    Pope Urban II was born into nobility and was eventually elected pope in March 1088 Pope Urban II was previously looking for ways to regain power over the East. So he went to the Council of Clermont in France and made a speech saying that the people that joined him in the crusade to fight against the Muslims and reclaim the Holy Land will be free of all of their sins. Around 60,000 soldiers set off for the first crusade. They conquered Jerusalem on July 15th 1099 and two weeks later Pope Urban II died.

  64. lei says:

    The person I’ve got is Frederick Barbarossa. He is related to the crusades because of his Uncle King Conrad 3rd. This was in the year 1147. he was the holy roman emperor from 1155 until his death 35 years later. he was elected king of Germany in Frankfurt of march 1152 and crowned at Aachen in march 1152. He is important to the crusades because he challenged papal influence and sought to establish German supremacy in Europe. Barbarossa’s call to the Third Crusade in the spring of 1189 to free Jerusalem from Saladin’s army. He engaged in six expeditions against Italy and served for a time in both the Second and the Third Crusades. Frederick Barbarossa had attempted to continue the imperial policy of the rulers of the Saxon and Salian lines. People from the 14th century believed he was sleeping in the imperial castle of Kyffhäuser and hoped he would return. A monument to him was erected there during the years 1890–96.

  65. Johnathan Lee says:

    Took place on 7 June-15 July 1099 capturing the holy land. The Fatimid took part in helping the Crusaders taking over the holy war. When the Crusaders of the First Crusade reacted to Palestine in the spring of 1099, the Ancient Philistine City of Ascalon was in the hands of the Fatimid Caliphate of Egypt. The siege of Jerusalem was waged by European forces of the Holy City of Jerusalem from the Muslim Fatimid Caliphate. In August 1109, following the Capture of Jerusalem the Crusaders joined battle with a Fatimid expeditionary force near Ascalon. Crusaders captured the Holy Land with the First Crusades.

  66. Anthony N says:

    “God wills it”– a phrase first used in 1096 in a meeting to start the Crusades. When Urban II brought all the church leaders together, he was telling them that they should get Jerusalem back from the Muslims. Whenever they went into battle they would yell that phrase.

    “God Wills It! | InContext.” Christian History Institute,

    Hamilton, Bernard. “‘God Wills It’: Signs of Divine Approval in the Crusade Movement.” Studies in Church History, vol. 41, Jan. 2005, pp. 88–98. Cambridge University Press,

  67. Jedidiah Tueller says:

    Constanople was the capital of the Byzantine empire in ancient times. During the crusades in 1204 CE the city was sacked for all its riches it had gathered over the time. The crusaders were drawn to the city due to its size and immense wealth that it had accumulated throughout its existence. The crusades were the first time that Constantinople was successfully pillaged despite being under attack for centuries by other forces. After breaching the defenses of Constantinople the sacking was brutal, people old and young were killed and many buildings were burned in the frenzy.

  68. Noah Van Dyke says:

    The crusades were heavily influenced by holy relics and deemed too precious to be left in the hands of unbelievers of christianity, the most notable being the holy lance and the true cross.
    Both items were said to be a part of the crucifixion of Jesus, and getting them back was a priority. The holy lance was found at Antioch, in 1098 in the first Crusade. The Holy cross was lost in the sack of Constantinople. Many pilgrims were motivated to fight in the crusades for a chance to bring back some dirt or small items from the holy lands back home with them, because they were so religiously significant.

    Relics and Reliquaries; Reliquary of the True Cross. Treasures of Heaven,
    %20the%20Crusades. Accessed 28 Sept. 2023.

    Editors of Brittanica, editor. “Peter Bartholomew.” Britannica, Brittanica,
    Relics and Reliquaries; Reliquary of the True Cross. Treasures of Heaven,
    %20the%20Crusades. Accessed 28 Sept. 2023. Accessed 28 Sept. 2023.

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