Crusades Glossary Entry

Follow the instructions on your assignment to submit your Crusades glossary entry.  Your glossary entry must be a 3-5 sentence paragraph that addresses the name of your topic, the connection of your topic to the Crusades, and the significance of your topic to the Crusades.  Make sure to include your two sources in your entry to receive full credit!

After submitting your entry, connect to two other classmates by commenting on their glossary entry, telling how your topic connects to theirs.

Finally, take notes on the glossary entries (there will be some repeated entries) to help your understanding of the Crusades as a whole, as well as to help with your success on the Crusades quiz.

104 Responses to “Crusades Glossary Entry”

  1. Johnny Kimura says:

    The Crusades Topic: Muslim 09/24/2022
    Johnny – Period 3
    The crusades were wars to win back the Holy Land, Jerusalem, from the Muslims. The crusaders were loyal Christians. The first crusade began in 1097. On the eve of the crusades, the Muslim world was in political disarray. As much as the Christians fought to get Jerusalem back the Muslims fought just as hard to keep Jerusalem. Jerusalem was extremely important for the Muslims as Muhammad, the founder of the Muslim faith, built the Dome of the Rock there and it was sacred to them. These wars lasted nearly 200 years. It is important to remember that prior to 1071, the Byzantines and Muslims had a good relationship. They traded together, served in one another’s governments as advisers and officials and the Muslims welcomed Christian pilgrims into Jerusalem. The Muslims lost Jerusalem during the first crusade but in 1187 the crusades lost Jerusalem to the Muslims. The Muslim leader at the time was Saladin. In 1192, the end of the fourth crusade, millions of Muslims had been brutally killed. The Holy wars left a deep hatred between the Europeans and Muslims.
    Sources:
    History.com/Why the Muslims See the Crusades So Differently from Christians. Missy Sullivan. September 3, 2018
    HISTORY TODAY/The Crusades a Complete History, Jonathan Phillips, Volume 65, May 5, 2015

    • Asher Cubit says:

      This relates to the Venetian Crusade because Jerusalem was very important to Venice and they tried to reclaim it.

    • Jocelyn Moon says:

      The topic of Muslims relates to Pope Urban II because he used the Christian’s religion to separate themselves from the Muslims. This allowed the intolerance for the Muslims control of the Holy Land to grow enough to rally the Christians to fight in the first crusade.

    • Brandon Olsen says:

      This relates towards my topic because my topic was Fatimids, they were a Muslim dominant religious empire.

    • Stephen Spangler says:

      This relates to the Christians because in the Crusades, the Christians mainly fought against the Muslims.

    • Carson Lake says:

      Your topic is related to mine because the Muslims had control of the Holy Land for more than 500 years.

    • Gavin Anderson says:

      My topic of the First Crusade relates to the topic of Muslims because the reason the First Crusade happened was because of Christians wanting to take back their holy land from the Muslims that were occupying it at the time.

    • Rick Van Tassel says:

      This relates to the 7th crusade because Louis VII and his army fought against the Muslims during the 7th crusade.

    • Nyah smith says:

      Saladin was the leader of muslim in the frist cruasdes.

    • hally milette says:

      This relates to my topic the second crusade because the pope was trying to get back the empire form the muslims

  2. Asher Cubit says:

    The Venetian Crusade
    Enrico Dandolo: Doge of the Republic of Venice from 1192 to 1205, promoted the Fourth Crusade which led to the overthrow of the Greek Byzantine Empire.
    (Doge: the chief magistrate of Venice or Genoa.)
    Fourth Crusade: A Latin Christian armed expedition called by Pope Innocent III, it was an expedition to recapture Jerusalem.
    Treaty of Venice: (1201) Negotiated between crusaders, and Enrico Dandolo of Venice to provide transport at the cost of 85,000 marks.
    Venice: They joined the Fourth Crusade to protect and expand their own interest in wealth.

    https://www.britannica.com/event/Treaty-of-Venice
    https://www.britannica.com/event/Crusades/The-Fourth-Crusade-and-the-Latin-empire-of-Constantinople

  3. Carson Lake says:

    The Holy Land was a part of land that was controlled by the Islams for more than 500 years. This was the main destination for all of the religions that took part in the Crusade, which is why it is so important. The Holy Land was the main objective for 9 crusades. The Holy Land was relevant to the crusades from the First Crusade (1096 CE) to 1099 CE when Jerusalem finally took full control of the land. The Holy Land was so important to the Crusades because it had significance to multiple religions. For Jewish people, that land was promised to them which they did not receive. For Christians, it is where Jesus was crucified and killed. They wanted the land to teach their people about the history of Jesus. For Muslims, the land was also promised to them but, they also wanted the land because it was where Muhammed died and went to heaven. While trying to get control of the Holy Lands was unsuccessful for most religions and lead to lots of harm, it was worth trying for because of the signifants of the land to the religions.

    https://www.historycrunch.com/what-is-the-holy-land-in-the-crusades.html#/

    https://www.history.com/topics/middle-ages/crusades

    • Ava Mercer says:

      This topic about the holy land is related to mine about Richard the lionhearted because Richard was very interested in taking this land from Muslim control. And in pursuit was apart of the crusades to do so.

    • Kaden Traxler says:

      This relates to nobles by the Holy land is where the nobles of the crusader states lived

      • Rowan Ball says:

        This relates to persecution because many religions cared about the holy land, so they argued and persecuted each other over it.

    • Stephen Spangler says:

      This relates to the Christians because during the Crusades of 1204, the Christians wanted to control the Holy Lands because that is where Jesus died.

    • Johnny says:

      “Holy Lands” relates to my topic “Muslims.” The Holy Land represents the birthplace of Jesus of Nazareth of the Christians. For the Muslims the Jerusalem’s Dome of the Rock represents the Prophet Mohammed and where he ascended to heaven. Both sides sacrificed so much in honor of their Holy Land.

    • Gavin Anderson says:

      My topic of the First Crusade relates to the topic of the Holy Land because the overall goal of the First Crusade was for Christians to take over and conquer the holy land as well as Jerusalem which was a holy city at the time.

    • Nyah smith says:

      Saladin was fighting the frist crusades over the holy land.

    • Marcus Mikes says:

      This relates to my topic Moors because the moors/Muslims fought and held the holy land during the crusades

    • Maleah says:

      The Holy land relates to my topic, the Council of Clermont, because the location held a great significance in the Crusades. Different religions thought the land itself, held significance, just like the Council of Clermont, the land was the significant part.

    • rhys says:

      This relates to my topic because my topic he traveled to the holy lands

  4. Jasper Komes says:

    Jasper Komes
    Period 3
    September 26 2022
    The Crusades

    Intolerances
    The Crusades were wars between the Christians and Muslims. These wars ensued because of
    the intolerance of the Crusaders to the Muslims. These intolerances were very important to
    the Crusaders because it was what drove them to fight the Muslims. These Crusades
    happened from 1095 through 1291. This all happened in the holy lands of Jerusalem. These
    intolerances that the Crusaders had was what helped them through thick and thin to decide
    what to do about what situation. These intolerances were the main reason why the Crusaders
    had attacked the holy lands and all of this fighting had caused a total of one million deaths.
    These intolerances were very closely related to two things. Those two are the Holy Land and
    Christians. The reason why the crusaders even had these intolerances was that them being
    Christian and wanted the holy land since it was an important place for their religion.

    Sources:
    https://www.britannica.com/event/Crusades
    https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/crus/hd_crus.htm
    https://www.worldhistory.org/Crusades/

    • Asher Cubit says:

      This connects to mine because the Venetian Crusade also is obsessed with the Holy Lands.

    • Jocelyn Moon says:

      This topic relates to Pope Urban II because the Christian’s intolerance of Muslims controlling the holy land was the main reason he was able to start the first crusade. When that intolerance was brought forward, there was enough anger to convince the Christians to go to war.

    • Ava mercer says:

      This relates to my topic Richard the lionhearted because he was a key part in the third crusade.

    • Eva Heartwell says:

      this relates to my topic because the sixth crusade took part in the crusades.

    • Marcus Mikes says:

      This relates to my topic moors because moors was a phrase used that caused intolerance

    • Song Moua says:

      This relates to my topic because it was the crusade’s fault that took over the City of Edessa and weakened it forever.

    • rhys says:

      This connects to mine because the Venetian Crusade also involved the Holy Lands.

  5. Jocelyn Moon says:

    Pope Urban II was born in 1035 in Largary, France. Throughout his life, he learned much from the teachings of Pope Gregory VII, and followed his example of leadership when he was elected pope in 1088. His main focus for the church was to unify the church, and started this by a process of internal reform by denouncing simony (the purchasing and exchanging church offices) and eliminating abusive uses of power in the church. In the late 1000’s, the Holy Land, consisting of Jerusalem and the surrounding areas, was taken by a Muslim group called the Fatimids. This, along with some encouragement from the Byzantine Emperor Alexius, motivated Pope Urban to give a speech that gathered the Christians to take back their sacred land. This speech, “Deus vult” or “God wills it”, motivated between 60,00 and 100,000 people to fight in what marked the beginning of the first crusade.

    https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/pope-urban-ii-orders-first-crusade
    https://www.britannica.com/biography/Urban-II

    • maleah says:

      Pope Urban || relates to my topic, the council of Clermont because Urban called church leaders to a council in Clermont, France. He called on the christian warriors to fight, they were promised indulenges.

    • jaxson cowen says:

      this relate to my topic because Raymond of Toulouse served pope Urban ll in the first crusade.

  6. Owen sherwood says:

    My topic for the Crusades glossary paragraph is Trade. My topic Trade relates to the Crusades because during those times, the Europeans started trading with the Middle east with trading goods to start a trading system for goods like food, blankets and other things they trade. They started doing the trading system from Europe to the Middle east in 1095 from the same year when the Crusades first started. My topic is relevant to the Crusades because they do trades to increase the following of the Crusades from between 1347-1350. The significance to my topic in relation to the Crusades was related to the connections of the Middle East and Europe that started trading and the Crusades became one of the defining events during the Middle ages. The significant results of my topic was a success because they successfully traveled along the ocean bringing goods to trade and they successfully increased trade networks to China and the Middle east and they got their goods to grow their markets.

    Citations:

    Revival of Trade 14-2 – Global 9 – Google Sites

    • Jonah Winsor says:

      My topic is all about Frederick Barbarossa. He had been in northern Italy running a campaign. He influenced trade in the area, northern Italy was powerful due to trade at the time.

  7. Marcus Mikes says:

    Moors was a term originally used by Christian Europeans to designate the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb. During the Crusades the term moors included the derogatory suggestion of infidels (a person who does not believe in religion or who adheres to a religion other than one’s own). A significant result of the term Moors was a source of intolerance on the side of the European Christians. It also lead to groups of Moors/Muslims fighting against the Christians in the crusades
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moors

  8. Nyah smith says:

    Saladin was born in the central Iraqi city of Tikrit in 1137 or 1138 historyer are not quit sore when he was born. His family was of Kurdish descent, and his father Ayyub and uncle were elite military leaders under Imad al-Din Zangi, a powerful ruler. After growing up in Damascus and being brought up through the military ranks, the young Saladin joined an army command led by his uncle on a military expedition to Egypt. Later Saladin launched a campaign to take control of the lands he had ruled. He also sought to establish his regime as a major military player capable of challenging the controlled Crusader states, which had been established after the First Crusade in 1098-1099. The results of this is one of the factors that played into the Crusades.

    worldhistory.org/saladin
    history.com/topics/africa/saladin

  9. Ava Mercer says:

    My topic is Richard the Lionhearted. Richard the Lionhearted was a successful crusader in the 1100’s. He was a part of a few of the crusades leading the army. He had a generally strong army that ended up holding its ground. He negotiated often but this negotiation usually ended unsuccessfully. He was important during the late 1100’s. During this time he was in a powerful position, leading the military and negotiating land; he played an important role in how the holy lands were dealt with. He was very influential politically during this time. He won many battles against saladin. He went out on the third crusade, he ultimately lost but was still considered a very strong leader.

    “Richard the Lionheart, King of England.” Historic UK, https://www.historic-uk.com/HistoryUK/HistoryofEngland/Richard-Lionheart/. Accessed 26 Sept. 2022.

    Internet History Sourcebooks Project. https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/source/1192peace.asp. Accessed 26 Sept. 2022.

  10. Maleah says:

    The Crusades
    The topic I am researching is the Council of Clermont. The council of Clermont was a gathering in November of 1095, Pope Urban || called church leaders to a Council in Clermont, France. Urban called on the christian warriors to fight. This event became the initiation of the first Crusade. Christians were motivated to fight against the Muslims because they were promised indulenges. Indulgences were also a way to fund the Crusades.

  11. Kaden Traxler says:

    Nobility- in the crusades, nobility was the upper class of the crusader states. Tancred the price of Galilee, The King of Jerusalem (which was a noble title), Emperor Baldwin of The Kingdom of Thessalonians, and The Pope were all considered to be nobles during The Crusades. Even though they were nobles that did not stop them from joining the Knights Templar for indulgences, an example being King Louis VII The Lionhearted but most nobles would purchase indulgences funding the crusades.

    “Category:Lists of Nobility of the Crusader States.” Wikipedia, 1 Sept. 2018. Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Lists_of_nobility_of_the_Crusader_states&oldid=857551366.

    “Kingdom of Thessalonica.” Wikipedia, 5 July 2022. Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kingdom_of_Thessalonica&oldid=1096650750.

    “Tancred, Prince of Galilee.” Wikipedia, 14 Sept. 2022. Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tancred,_Prince_of_Galilee&oldid=1110327500.

    • Isaiah Hamilton says:

      This relates to mine with how crusaders believed in god and used it as a motivation to beat the Muslims and others also with “god wills it” being quoted from franks at celrmont.

    • Eva Heartwell says:

      this relates to my topic because Fredrick II organized and led his troops to acre in September in 1228 but the christian nobility in Palestine was not thrilled about his arrival.

    • Etienne Mathey says:

      This relates to my topic the knights Templar because the warriors in the Templar were noble

  12. Jonah Winsor says:

    Frederick Bararosa was a holy roman emperor born in 1123 and died in 1190. Frederick Bararossa, son of Frederick ll, and was the duke of Swabia and Judith. Frederick Bararossa died during the third crusade to take back the holy land. The third crusade was to take back Jerusalem for Saladin’s army. He had a campaign set in Italy with the goal of restoring imperial rights.

  13. Logan Issler says:

    Children’s Crusade: Was a religious movement in Europe in 1212. Where thousands of young adolescents took crusading vows to take back Jerusalem from Muslims. None of the young participants actually ever reached the Holy Land. Although not doing much it helped initiate the Fifth Crusade. Dickson, Gary. “Children’s Crusade”. Encyclopedia Britannica, 18 Mar. 2018, https://www.britannica.com/event/Childrens-Crusade. Accessed 26 September 2022.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Children%27s_Crusade

    • Jasper Komes says:

      The children’s crusade was very closely related to the intolerances of the crusades. This is because they shared very similar intolerances to what they were fighting for.

  14. Eli Hanneman says:

    How Excommunication Relates to the Crusades

    Excommunication is the action of officially excluding someone from participation in the sacraments and services of the Christian Church. Excommunication was used in the fourth crusade. The first time a catholic crusade army attacked a catholic city the pope excommunicated the crusading army.

    https;//www.fordham.edu/halsall/sbook1k.html
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fourth_Crusade

  15. rhys garland says:

    Frederick Barbarossa was the Holy Roman Emperor from 1155 he was known for his death while traveling to the Holy Land on the 3rd crusade. Frederick joined the Third Crusade and opted to travel overland to the Holy Land where he died of drowning. This is important because it tells he was a part of the crusades.

    sources: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_Barbarossa

  16. Brandon Olsen says:

    The Fatimids was an empire that existed between 909-1171CE. They were a part of the Crusades and had total victory in the end. They were a dominant Muslim religion empire that was Shia. They extended their empire throughout Egypt, northern Africa, and parts of the Middle East. The Fatimids was a member of a dynasty which ruled in parts of northern Africa, Egypt, and Syria from 909 to 1171, and founded Cairo as its capital in 969.

    Wikipedia contributors. “Fatimid Caliphate.” Wikipedia, 18 Sept. 2022, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatimid_Caliphate#:%7E:text=The%20Fatimid%20Caliphate%20was%20an,Red%20Sea%20in%20the%20east.

    “Fatimid Dynasty | Egypt, Rulers, Religion, Capital, and Founder.” Encyclopedia Britannica, http://www.britannica.com/topic/Fatimid-dynasty. Accessed 23 Sept. 2022.

  17. Stephen Spangler says:

    Christians/Crusades
    The Christians were one of the main groups that were involved in the religious crusades. The Christians main enemy was the Muslims. The brutal and ruthless conflicts that happened between the Christians and the Muslims enhanced the status of European Christians.
    The crusades that the Christians took part in, happened sometime between 1096 and 1291. The significance of the Christians taking part in the crusades was the fact that they were one of the main groups to fight against the Muslims. The brutal and ruthless conflicts that happened between the Christians and the Muslims enhanced the status of European Christians. The Crusades were also led by children or peasants.
    The crusades took place in the Middle east of Europe. Christians and the Muslims fought mainly over holy sites considered to be sacred by both groups.
    As late as May, 1683, Muslims conquered far larger territories of Christians than vice-versa.

    https://www.history.com/topics/middle-ages/crusades#:~:text=The%20Crusades%20were%20a%20series,occurred%20between%201096%20and%201291.
    https://www.christianitytoday.com/history/issues/issue-40/crusades-did-you-know.html

    • Brandon Olsen says:

      Christians relate to my topic because they were the main attackers for my empire which was the Fatimids.

    • Carson Lake says:

      Christians are related the the holy land because the christians wanted the land to teach people about their leader Jesus who was killed in the Holy Land.

    • Eli Hanneman says:

      My topic of excommunication relates to Christians because excommunication was excluding somone from a Cristian church.

    • Johnny Kimura says:

      “Christians” relates to my topic “Muslims” as the Crusades involved both these religious groups, hence the name the Holy Wars. The wars between them continued for two centuries. Despite the huge loss between the Christians and Muslims during that time Europe saw a massive economic expansion, especially with trade escalating the progress of civilization.

    • Rick Van Tassel says:

      This relates to the 7th Crusade because christians are one of the reasons why the 7th Crusade happened.

    • Elodie Bennett says:

      Christians relate to the Albigensian Crusade because it was Christians who fought against Catharism (a dualist religious movement in France, and the most vibrant heresy in Europe).

    • Caleb Doerr says:

      This relates to my topic because the people in Constantinople were Christian.

    • Jonah Winsor says:

      My topic is about Frederick Barbarossa. Frederick Barbarossa was involved within the crusades on the christian team i guess you could say. He was roman catholic and was involved in the crusades in some fashion until he died during the 3rd crusade.

    • Thomas Jones says:

      Christians relate to my topic Holy lands because Christianity was founded in the Holy Lands and Jesus Christ was also sacrificed in the Holy Lands

    • Sage Edmonds says:

      The topic of Christianity relates to my topic; the Third crusade because Christians were one out of the two main groups that were battling over Holy Sites in the Third Crusade.

  18. Loren Platt says:

    Edessa Crusades

    The Siege of Edessa was held from the 28th of November to the 24th of December 1144. Edessa is located in the South Eastern part of Turkey today, but it was once part of Mesopotamia, a major and popular city in the Middle Ages. Edessa was an unsuccessful Second Crusade (1147-1149 CE). The Muslim leader Nur ad-Din conquered Edessa and got rid of christianity and influenced the citizens with Muslim Religion. The Second Crusade was significant to others because it was a bold attempt to take over and influence people to a different religion. The Seleucid Empire re-founded the city after it was abandoned and turned it into a military settlement in 304 BCE.

    https://www.britannica.com/event/Siege-of-Edessa

    https://www.worldhistory.org/edessa/

  19. Caleb Doerr says:

    Constantinople in the Crusades 1204, The sack of Constantinople was a diversion of the Fourth Crusade. The Muslim’s plan was to attack, capture, and plunder the Byzantine city of Constantinople. After the sacking, everything started to become weaker and weaker, and after a while, The Turkish took over. This damage resulted in the Byzantine empire being destroyed. Turkish forces two centuries later and in their control of the once-glittering Byzantine empire.

    https://greekreporter.com/2022/07/24/crusaders-history-sack-constantinople/

    https://www.britannica.com/event/Sack-of-Constantinople-1204

  20. Gavin Anderson P.5 says:

    The First Crusade was the first crusade of several with the goal of taking back the city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land of the Christians away from the Muslims. The idea of the Crusades was conceived by Pope Urban II when he called for one on November 27, 1095, during a speech at the Council of Clermont in France. He promised the people that participated that their sins would be washed away and their souls would reap untold benefits in their next life. Across Europe warriors then gathered throughout the year of 1096 to prepare for the journey that was set to be on August 15, 1096. Overall over 60,000 people set out and the crusade was a success with Jerusalem being captured on July 15, 1099.

    Sources:
    Cartwright, Mark. “First Crusade.” World History Encyclopedia, https://www.worldhistory.org/First_Crusade/. Accessed 26 Sept. 2022.
    The First Crusade. https://historylearning.com/medieval-england/the-crusades/first-crusade/. Accessed 26 Sept. 2022.

  21. Rowan Ball says:

    My topic is persecution in the Crusades. Persecution relates to the crusades because of how it affected religions, which was always present and important in the Crusades. Some religions such as judaism, islam, and christianity were persecuted and would persecute each other. This topic is mainly relevant from 1095-1100. This topic is relevant in religion because so many cultures are contradicting each other and persecuting each other based on the fact that they have different beliefs. Persecution is significant because it was a big issue during the beginning of the Crusades when people were beginning to get in conflicts over the law and religion. The results of my topic were seperation of the religions and them splitting of from each other, as well as an overall religion intolerance.

    Citations:
    https://www.ushmm.org/research/about-the-mandel-center/initiatives/ethics-religion-holocaust/articles-and-resources
    https://www.wboro.org/cms/lib/NY01914047/Centricity/Domain/1006/Effects%20of%20the%20Crusades.doc

    • Elodie Bennett says:

      Persecution relates to the Albigensian Crusade because the main conflict of this crusade involved the persecution against Catharism (a dualist religious movement in Languedoc, France, which was the most vibrant heresy in Europe).

  22. Hally Milette says:

    The Second Crusade was a military campain which was focused on the recaturing of the city of Edessa which had fallen to the Muslim Seljuk Turks. This was organized by the current pope at the time and European nobles. The Christians had over 60,000 people that fought but did not succeed in the end. The second crusade had two parts which were both mostly successful but they failed to achieve their main objective that they had wanted to achieve.

    Cartwright, Mark. “Second Crusade.” World History Encyclopedia, https://www.worldhistory.org/Second_Crusade/. Accessed 26 Sept. 2022.
    “Second Crusade.” Wikipedia, 26 Sept. 2022. Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Second_Crusade&oldid=1112519069

    • Isaiah Hamilton says:

      This relates to mine “god wills it” with crusading since most Christian crusaders had god as there 1 motivation.

    • Sage Edmonds says:

      The second crusade, relates to my topic; the Third Crusade because it was the previous battle before my topic and it influenced future battles, just like the Third Crusade.

  23. Rick Van Tassel says:

    The 7th Crusade was the crusade that happened after the 6th Crusade when Jerusalem was taken from the Christians by the nomadic Khorezmian. The 7th Crusade began in 1248 CE and lasted until 1254 CE. The crusade was led by French King Louis VII who intended to conquer Egypt and take back Jerusalem that was controlled by the Muslim Ayyubid Dynasty. In June 1249 CE Louis Crusader army entered Egypt and captured Demietta. On 8 February 1250 CE, Robert of Artois led a foolish attack on an enemy before his men were ready which resulted in a major defeat. However Louis was just able to hold his ground before reinforcements arrived. But on April 5 1250 CE, Louis ordered a retreat with most of his soldiers arbitrated and diseased. After his call for a retreat, King Louis VII fell ill and was captured. King Louis VII was released after his and the remaining army’s large ransom of over 400,000 livres tournois and the surrender of Chriastan-held Damietta. The conflict lead to 15,000 crusader deaths with only a handful of Muslim soldiers that were killed.

    Sources:
    Cartwright, Mark. “Seventh Crusade.” World History Encyclopedia, https://www.worldhistory.org/Seventh_Crusade/. Accessed 26 Sept. 2022.

    “How Many People Died in the Seventh Crusade?” Homework.Study.Com, https://homework.study.com/explanation/how-many-people-died-in-the-seventh-crusade.html. Accessed 26 Sept. 2022.

  24. Elodie Bennett says:

    The Albigensian Crusade (also known as the Cathar Crusade) was a 20-year military (1209-1229) campaign initiated by Pope Innocent III. The crusade sought to eliminate Catharism (a dualist religious movement also known as Albigensianism, which was the most vibrant heresy in Europe) in Languedoc, France. The Albigensian Crusade had a role in the creation and institutionalization of both the Dominican Order and the Medeval Inquisition. Pope Innocent III offered the lands of the Cathar heretics (people practicing religious heresy) to any French nobleman willing to take up arms. The Crusaders experienced great success from 1209 to 1215, capturing Cathar lands and destroying the movement. At least 200,000 to at most 1,000,000 Cathars were killed. The Albigensian Crusade was finally brought to an end by the French King Louis VIII.

    Sources:
    https://www.britannica.com/event/Albigensian-Crusade
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albigensian_Crusade

  25. Greta Karcz says:

    My topic was Tripoli. Tripoli was located in the Levant in the modern day region of Tripoli, northern Lebanon and parts of western syria. Tripoli supported indigenous population of Christians, Druze, and Muslims. The significance of tripoli to the crusades was that it was the last to fall of the crusader states.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/County_of_Tripoli#:~:text=The%20County%20of%20Tripoli%20

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fall_of_Tripoli_(1289)

  26. Eva Heartwell says:

    The Frederick II crusade, usually referred to as the sixth crusade, was a military operation to retake Jerusalem and the rest of the holy land. It started seven years after the fifth crusade collapse and featured relatively little actual combat. Due to the fact that it was the sixth crusade, it was considered a crusade. The sixth crusade was significant from 1228-1229. The prior failure of the European crusaders to take Jerusalem as their prize was the significance of the sixth crusade. Following the sixth crusade, the kingdom of Jerusalem was able to reestablish some authority over both jerusalem and other holy territories, for the most of the fifteen years that followed.

    sources:
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sixth_Crusade
    https://www.historycrunch.com/sixth-crusade.html#/

  27. Song Moua says:

    Edessa was an ancient city located on the Roman-Persian frontier along with the Sasanian Empire. Edessa was actually the main reason why the 2nd crusade happened. In response to the fall of the County of Edessa in 1144, the 2nd crusade started. Edessa, or what is known as modern day Urfa, is currently located in southeast Turkey. Edessa was once relevant in the ancient times and Middle Ages. The significance of Edessa in relation to the crusades was that it actually started the 2nd crusade and was also then captured by the crusades along with the leader of Muslims, Zengi’s son. The city Edessa was captured in 1144 and then fell. This was the end of Edessa.

    Sources:

    Siege of Edessa | Summary | Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/event/Siege-of-Edessa. Accessed 26 Sept. 2022.

    Cartwright, Mark. “Edessa.” World History Encyclopedia, https://www.worldhistory.org/edessa/. Accessed 26 Sept. 2022.

  28. Isaiah Hamilton says:

    The Crusades “God wills it”
    Robert the Monk, who was at the Council of Clermont in 1095. Also heard Urban II preach the crusade sermon, reports that when he had finished speaking all who were there shouted “God wills it.” since crusaders were mostly all christain there main motivation was to fight for God and that god willed it.

    Cites
    https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/studies-in-church-history/article/abs/god-will s-it-signs-of-divine-approval-in-the-crusade-movement/E79077B92965C0EB796AF6620

    • Song Moua says:

      This relates to my topic because of “God wills it”, the crusade happened and took over the city of Edessa for good.

  29. Alexandra says:

    The Fourth Crusade

    Innocent III began preaching what became known as the Fourth Crusade in 1202-1204 in France, England and Germany. It was a Western European armed expedition originally intended to conquer Muslim-controlled Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt. The Fourth Crusade never came within 1,000 miles of its objective of Jerusalem, instead, conquering Byzantium twice before being routed by the Bulgars at Adrianople. In 1204, they captured and plundered the city’s enormous wealth. Then, the conquest of Constantinople was followed by the fragmentation of the Byzantine Empire into three states centered in Nicaea, Tribezond, and Epirus.

  30. Cassius Pulliam says:

    Bernard of Clairvaux
    Benard of Clairvaux was a Burgundian abbot and a major leader in the revitalization of Benedictine monasticism through the nascent Cistercian Order. Bernard had a nickname of the “honey tongued doctor” because of the way he wrote about and praised God. He also was a Burgundian abbot and a major leader in the revitalization of Benedictine monasticism through the nascent Cistercian Order. But behind closed doors he wasn’t too good of a guy and also rallied soldiers to kill Muslims. He was born in 1090 and died August 20, 1153.
    https://www.franciscanmedia.org/saint-of-the-day/saint-bernard-of-clairvaux
    https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bernard-clairvaux-0

  31. Etienne Mathey says:

    The Knights of Templar were a group of Christians who protected Europeans from danger during the first crusade. Their main objective was to retake the holy land. It started as Pope Urban wanted to make an army to take back places like Jerusalem, captured by the Muslims, and set up a council to create the army. These were the fundamentals of the crusades because they were the first to even do the crusades.

    Conterio, Martyn, and All About History published. “Who Were the Knights Templar?” Livescience.Com, 13 Dec. 2021, https://www.livescience.com/knights-templar.html.

    Editors, History com. “Knights Templar.” HISTORY, https://www.history.com/topics/middle-ages/the-knights-templar. Accessed 28 Sept. 2022.

  32. gregory higashi says:

    In 1204 during the Crusades, Constantinople. The Fourth Crusade was sidetracked by the conquest of Constantinople. The Muslim’s strategy was to attack, seize, and plunder Constantinople, a Byzantine metropolis. Everything began to deteriorate after the dismissal, and eventually, The Turkish gained over. Because of this harm, the Byzantine empire was destroyed. The once-glamourous Byzantine empire is now under the authority of Turkish soldiers, two centuries later.

    https://www.britannica.com/event/Albigensian-Crusade
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albigensian_Crusade

  33. Thomas Jones says:

    Holy Lands
    The Holy Lands were a significant part of the Crusades because the Crusade States were territories in the Holy Lands. The Holy Lands are located in the middle of the Mediterranean sea and the Dead sea The Crusade were started in 1096 CE and ended in 1571 CE and it would be fought between Christians and Islam. During the Crusades would take several key territories in the Holy Lands.

    “Crusades.” History, A&E Television Network, 7 June 2010, http://www.history.com/topics/
    middle-ages/crusades. Accessed 27 Sept. 2022.
    Madden, Thomas F. “Crusades.” Britannica, 19 Aug. 2022, http://www.britannica.com/event/
    Crusades. Accessed 27 Sept. 2022.

  34. Aaron Brandenburg says:

    Phillip II Augustus
    Philip Augustus the II was the king of France He began his rule in 1180 and ended in 1223. Augustus was known as the king of Franks but later styled himself as the “Monarch of France”. Phillip helped France turn into the most rich and prosperous state in all of Europe. He even had a great wall built around France known as the “Wall of Phillip II Augustus”. He had travelled to the holy land to participate in The Third Crusade 1189-1192. He had gone with King Richard I of England and Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, they had later split up at Lyon and decided to go different directions. The “Siege of Arch” a lesser conquest during the crusades had consequently ended in the death of Philip, Count of Flanders, who held the county of Vermandois proper.[36] His death threatened to derail the Treaty of Gisors that Philip had orchestrated to isolate the powerful Blois-Champagne faction. Augustus had later fell ill and during the summer his fever had worsened and soon succumbed to his illness.

    Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_II_of_France#Later_years

  35. Beck Morman says:

    My topic is about trade.
    Who, what, or where is your topic?
    2. The crusades built trade routes including the famous Silk Road.
    3. 130 BCE was when the Silk Road was made.
    4. The trades went on between Europe and China
    5.trade helped improve the crusades time period because trade brought lots of attention.
    6.
    What were the significant results of your topic (deaths, land lost/won.
    etc.?
    https://homework.study.com/explanation/did-the-crusades-open-up-trading-between-europe-and-china.html

  36. Jaxson Cowen says:

    Tripoli was the last crusader state founded in the near east in 1109. Tripoli was founded by Raymond IV, count of Toulouse the wealthiest magnate to answer pope Urban ll call in 1095. the seige of Tripoli was the crusaders taking Tripoli from the quid. the seige lasted from 1104 to 1109. Raymond died in this conflict. the city fell ion july 12 the crusader had sacked the town.
    the city lasted from 1109 to 1280
    cited
    https://www.britannica.com/event/Crusades/The-Crusader-states
    https://www.bearersofthecross.org.uk/county-tripoli-1109-1289/

  37. rylin sanderson says:

    The byzantine empire held a big piece in history. The byzantine has influenced alot of things into modern day lives. Some of the things they have done is there strong belief in christanity and law in many western states. http://www.history.com

  38. Alejandra Martinez says:

    The 8th Crusade was a fight that occurred in 1270 CE. The 8th Crusade was the second crusade led by Louis IX of France. The 8th Crusade was similar to the 7th Crusade. The 8th Crusade was a battle between the Bourbon dynasty and the Hafsid dynasty. The 8th Crusade began July 18th, 1270, and ended October 30, 1270. Louis IX died at Tunis shortly after arriving on August 25, 1270, in an epidemic of dysentery that swept through his army. Philip III was crowned king at the age of 12 following Louis IX’s death. The Treaty of Tunis was signed by Philip III of France November 1st, 1270.

  39. Paige Heinz says:

    Persecution is ill treatment because of religious beliefs or race or political views. This relates to the Crusades because they would kill people that were Jewish. This happened most in 1095- 1096. This happened in southern France, Council of Clermont. Many, many deaths occured.

  40. Randell Albeza says:

    Christianity and the crusades had a very big relation to each other. The crusades actually had started due to the Muslims and Christians trying to achieve more land. These crusades had lasted from 1096 and 1291. The Crusades were very violent and had a high death toll. In 1098 the wars had lead into Jerusalem,which Muslim people had control over at the time.

    Sources: https://www.history.com/topics/middle-ages/crusades
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christianity

  41. Sage Edmonds says:

    “The Crusades”, were a series of nine violent wars fought between Christians And Muslims. The objective was to conquer and take claim over Holy Sites, land in which both parties deemed sacred. My topic, the Third Crusade or “King’s Crusade” started in 1189 and ended in 1192. The crusade was led by European leaders, the first battles were deemed very successful with the capture of important cities; Acre and Jaffa. Contrary to the past victories the Third Crusade failed the main objective of capturing Jerusalem. Deeming the conquest only partially successful.

    Works Cited
    Histoy.com. “Crusades.” Edited by History.com. History.com, 7 June 2010, http://www.history.com/topics/middle-ages/crusades#:~:text=The%20Crusades%20were%20a%20series,occurred%20between%201096%20and%201291. Accessed 28 Sept. 2022.
    Lumen Learning. “The Third Crusade.” Courses.lumenlearning.com, courses.lumenlearning.com/atd-herkimer-westerncivilization/chapter/the-third-crusade/. Accessed 28 Sept. 2022.

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